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Nursery in India
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Specialization Fields/Scope

The increasingly complicated lifestyles are giving birth to a variety of ailments, which have made it impossible for General Physicians with an MBBS degree to handle all ailments. It is here that specialization in a particular branch of medicine becomes a necessity.

The major Specializations include: General Medicine.

  1. General Surgery.
  2. Paediatrics.
  3. Obstetrics & Gynaecology.
  4. Dermatology.
  5. Ophthalmology.
  6. Orthopedics.
  7. ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat).
  8. Psychiatry.
  9. Anesthesiology.

There are also Super Specializations which require a further 3-5 years of study in areas such as:

  1. Plastic Surgery.
  2. Neurosurgery.
  3. Cardio-thoracic surgery .
  4. Conito-urinary surgery.
  5. Paediatric Surgery .
  6. Gastroenterology .
  7. Endocrinology.
  8. Clinical Haematology.

Career Preferences.

Some of the common areas of specialisation in Medicine and Surgery are :

  •  General Practitioner or Physician : He diagnosis and treats the every day and sundry ailments of the human body. MBBS holders practice as physicians.
  • General Surgeon : Is one who specialises in surgery for all organs of the body. He can further specialise in specific areas. Duties involve examining the patient to determine the extent and nature of injury, treatment through operation and giving post operative care. Surgery is of various types Orthopaedic, Plastic, Neuro etc.
  • Anaesthetist or Anaesthesiologists : Administers anesthetics to a patient undergoing surgical operation according to the nature of operation. It is he who makes the surgical procedure as painless as possible. His duties involve examining the patient to determine his capacity to withstand shock of operation and anesthesia. He/she has huge responsibility and has to be present throughout the operation.
  • Psychiatrist : Diagnoses and treats mental disorders.
  • Psychiatry has two major branches: The first is psychotherapy, the application of psychological techniques to the treatment of mental illnesses. This branch uses non-drug therapies and will not use physical techniques such as drugs or surgery. The second branch is psychiatry, where medical therapies are used. After diagnosing physical and behavioural symptoms, drugs and other means may be used for treatment.
  • Neurologist : Diagnosis and treats diseases related to brain and nervous system. They also specialise in Neuro-surgery.
  • Pediatrician : Treats newborn babies and children.
  • Ophthalmologist or Eye Specialist : Treats diseases and disorders of eyes.
  • Pathologist : Investigate the cause of various diseases and the possibilities for their prevention. His duties involve conducting chemical, microscopic and bacteriological test in labs and examining blood, tissues, urine etc. to find out the cause for disease.
  • Cardiologist : Also called as heart specialist. Treats diseases related to heart and circulatory system.
  • Gynaecologist-Obstetrician : Diagnosis and treats diseases and disorders of human female reproduction system. They care for pregnant women from conception through delivery.
  • Dermatologist : One who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems.
  • Orthopaedist : Deals with diseases connected to skeletal system. Orthopedics is that branch of medicine that deals with the correction of deformities and prevention of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, all bones and bony tissue.
  • Gastroenterologist : Treats diseases related to liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bowels and gall bladder.
  • Radiologist : Diagnosis diseases and disorders by studying X-ray pictures of affected parts and gives treatment such as therapeutic radiation to affected parts of the body.
  • ENT specialist : Treats disorders of ear, nose and throat.
  • Tuberculosis Specialist : Treats ailments due to infection by tubercular disease.
  • Venereologist : Treats venereal or sexual diseases.
  • Bacteriologist : Also called Microbiologist. Conducts research and laboratory experiments on occurrence, growth, development, control and utilization of bacteria and other micro-organisms.
  • Physiologist : Studies normal functioning of different organs and tissues of human body and investigates effects of physical environments such as variations in altitude, speed, temperature etc on its vital functions.
  • Nutritionist : Gives instructions regarding food values and utilization of foods in human body to keep it healthy and control diseases. He prescribes diet for various diseases.
  • Chiropodist : Also called pedicurist, treats foot diseases and abnormalities. He treats corns, blisters etc using surgical instruments.

Job Prospects :

Doctors can find employment In Government or private hospitals.

  • In Nursing homes/clinics/health departments.
  • In medical services of the army, navy and air force, under the Ministry of Defense.
  • In charitable institutions.
  • In medical colleges and training institutes as teachers.
  • In research institutes and medical colleges as researchers.
  • In the industrial sector.
  • Private practice / self employment.

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